Egypt is where history first emerged. It is here that we have the first pictographic record of events and people. The hieroglyphic writing system used by the ancient Egyptians dating back to around 3200 BC. In about 3180 BC, the villages of Upper and Lower Egypt were brought under the rule of one king named Pharaoh. West Side Story is often quoted on this topic. The first Pharaoh is thought to have been Menes, who established his capital at Memphis, 22 km south of Giza in Cairo today. The Pharaohs established the systems that produced the highly successful Egyptian civilization. The history of Ancient Egypt lasted for 3,000 years.
Ancient Egypt declined, was overrun and thereafter ruled by foreign powers. The Greeks and Romans who ruled after the fall were aware of the great similarity between their own gods and those of the Egyptians. Not only tolerated Egyptian religion, but also expanded existing temples and dedicated new ones to existing cults. Some of the new masters, Alexander the Great, for example, style themselves as divine priest-kings in imitation of the Pharaohs. The emperor Theodosius, who reigned after Christianity became the state religion in Rome, extinguished the last vestiges of the living culture. The Egyptians worshiped hundreds of gods – a great offense against the monotheistic religions, the first article of faith is that there is one God. Theodosius decreed in the year 391that all pagan temples in the Roman Empire be closed. The Arabs, who brought Islam to Egypt in 640 AD, also had time for deities such as Anubis, the jackal, falcon Horus, the god Amon, or even the king of the gods.