Winter of 2006 world population topped 6, 5 billion people, while less than 20 years ago July 11, 1987 the figure stood at 5 billion the entire second half of the xx century was accompanied by rapid population growth, the so-called "Population explosion". According to most scientists, the earth is overpopulated, and a further increase in population will lead to a global ecological catastrophe. Some experts believe that the increase in the number of population of short-term nature, and in 2010 will decline. It is known that for many centuries world population was small and grew slowly. The most likely his number at the beginning of our era – 230 million, of which 2 / 8, lived in Asia. Over the next thousand years it has risen to 288 million growth was inhibited extremely high mortality and often interrupted by wars, epidemics, famine, which led to a balance between births and mortality.

Growth rate of world population sharply accelerated since the mid xviii century, especially in Europe, which was due to the development of capitalism. Ry rapid population growth in America and Australia was caused by migration flow, mainly from Europe. The rapid acceleration of growth in population occurred in the middle of xx century. If during its first half it increased at 1, 5 times, then over the next 37 years – has doubled. After World War ii everywhere dramatically reduce mortality, which was mainly due to the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics.

Fertility declined quite slowly, and in some places is temporarily increased. This led to "Population explosion". But it is characteristic only for developing countries, in developed countries, however, population growth has decreased, and in some – has stopped. The share of developed countries in the world population is rapidly decreasing: from 33% in 1950 to 23% in 1990 recent years, population growth rates are highest in Africa (about 3% per year) and Latin America (more than 2%). In some European countries (Austria, Hungary, Denmark, Germany, Sweden) is a natural decline in population. Now, more than half humanity lives in Asia. Most populous countries – China and India. This is followed by the United States, Indonesia and Brazil. Russian Federation within its borders in 2009 occupies the number of inhabitants (142 million) in ninth place in the world.