Mosaic is one of the most reliable and durable, non-porous materials, which possesses all the necessary properties to resist water. When laying tile job easier so-called “matrix” – sheets of paper or fiberglass mesh size of 322 x 322 mm, which mosaic squares are glued face. Then the sheets one by one, press a mosaic of the surface coated with glue and paper remains on the surface. Then the sheets wet, and they peel easily. But warning: this hard work can make only a specialist. pvc film – a new coating for swimming pools. For assistance, try visiting baby clothes. This lightweight material – an excellent gidroizolyator, moreover, it is much cheaper than ceramic tiles and mosaics.
Special pvc film usually consists of four layers. Between the second and third layer laid fabric-mesh poliesterola or Kevlar (a very durable synthetic material, which, by the way, sew bulletproof jackets). The film is resistant to exposure to ultraviolet light and chemicals. This coverage does not require special care, easy to clean, it does not spread germs. How does it stack? First of all carefully file down the wall surface, otherwise the film may scuff. The reconstruction of old pools, or pools, tiled, in which problems with the waterproofing, can blow the film directly on the tiles (but here you must be sure that the tile does not exfoliate). At the second stage of installation is laid so-called fixing band: metal tape 2 m long, 5-6 cm wide, 2 mm thick. Then, at her On the one hand applied to plastic sheeting, which is welded to the film.
Learn how number of employees at the same time can be employed at the facility (you can make the repair a flat in a hostel for visitors from the countries of ). Are there any photos of work performed, the positive recommendations, there is a chance to view the objects handed over to the place, not just as a photo or video. Now about those tricks and ruses resorted to by the builders, finishers and other members of repairs during execution of works and provision of records. Connect with other leaders such as Gary Kelly here. Contract. There are standard forms of building contract and more often than him, and shoved. Be vigilant. Carefully read this document together with a lawyer and make the necessary adjustments.
Learn the order of the repairs, agree a clear timetable, dates of commencement and completion. (Terms and graphic sick theme, may be deliberately excluded from the contract). Notice opportunity to recover penalties or fines for violations of treaty obligations by any party. Clearly defined, customer or contractor will be engaged in supplying the object rough and finish construction materials. Typically, rough material carries a contractor and finish the customer. Make sure the contract defines the responsibilities of the contractor for failure to fulfill their obligations to supply the object materials or use of inappropriate production technologies repairs. Be sure to check that the details of the firm or passport data of an individual specified in the contract with company registration documents or personal documents certifying the person of the employee. Better to ask copies of passports for those involved in the repair of your apartment.
It is not hard to guess what the output of cpo in the construction of a large number of small construction companies to supply cpo in a difficult position. Because the federal law 'On the self-regulatory organizations' minimum number participants: for sro Building – 100 members for the sro in the design and investigations – 50 members. If an sro number of participants falls below the minimum, it will dissolve. The bill provides for the possibility reorganization of the self-regulatory organizations in the form of mergers and acquisitions that will allow SROs established in different regions to unite. In addition, the bill provides for the possibility of 'violent' dissolution sro. National associations of self-regulatory organizations are authorized to monitor the activities of self-regulatory organizations. In case of violations of the national association has the right sro issue an order to remedy it.
If the breach is not cured within the prescribed period, the national association will be entitled to apply to the supervisory authority to demand the deletion of information about an organization from State Register. If information about the self-regulatory organization will be excluded from the register, all issued its certificate of admission to the construction works will automatically lose their validity, and means of a compensation fund such an organization will be credited to the National Association of SROs appropriate form and may be made only on the implementation of the payments associated with the onset of vicarious liability for liquidated sro obligations of its members. In the near future will be the legal possibility of a reorganization of the SROs and their 'forced' liquidation. Part of the SROs in the construction (of the created exclusively to raise funds builders in compensation funds) decide to dissolve itself, because the bill provides for the obligation of SROs allocate funds the compensation fund only in deposits and certificates of deposit of Russian credit organizations that meet the criteria established by national associations of self-regulatory organizations. The money is already no one can 'steer'..
The first 2 species were stained by Catalog ral (color choices are many, 196 colors). Plates with crumbs match the color of the stone, which they covered with crumbs. Here, options for shades less (about 20). Again I quote the words of Igor Resurrection: "In the Soviet time in the design of the city to use up to 20 colors. Now the building painted in 200 colors at a time when Europe uses 600 colors. Asbestos and fiber cement boards are not usually used for the lining of tall buildings and apply, governed mainly at buildings with 5 floors and facing cottages and industrial buildings.
It would seem that might be easier for an architect – to choose a beautiful, neizbity, bright color cladding material, unexpected combinations and forms of hinged structures. In the end, everything to gain – and the building was modern, efficient system of warming and its appearance attracts and pleases the eye, and can become an ornament to the city. But even here there are its pitfalls. Aesthetics has ceased to be an independent category. It is subject to economic benefits and is measured in money.
A simple example – you buy a refrigerator. There are many, technical specifications are identical, cost about the same one and the same, but you need a fridge is not the classic white and navy blue. The seller tells you that the refrigerator that color have to wait some time until it will bring, at best. In the worst – such a refrigerator will cost more because you chose the color is not typical and, relatively speaking, a refrigerator must be specially painted in dark blue.
Wooden houses are at the peak of popularity. And there's nothing special. We go back to basics, remembering the traditions of their ancestors. Despite the age of high technology, and can in spite of all innovation, Timber little that can be contrast of materials. One of their main advantages – ecological purity. In a wooden house to maintain the optimum humidity, hot summers it is kept pleasantly cool, and cold winter days – warm.
Volatile, substances that are contained in a timber, make the air salubrious. Whatever the year, nor stood in the courtyard, a building material like wood will always have its admirers. Over time, changing only the technology production. Houses are built of logs, from the profiled bar. Every year the number of orders for building houses from timber. This – the best price-quality and durable material. In factory rod attached to the desired profile. Timber treated with different impregnating against rot, beetles Dry wood borers, will give the connective system.
Due to the peculiarities of the production of such timber felling easy to collect, it is durable and reliable. Before you do the construction, the future owner of property outside the city determined to be a house of logs or timber, whether it is in classic style or any other. To be determined and height. On this and the rest will ask the architect who will design. One-storey house is simple in terms of design. But will have sufficient space to allocate to the corridors. Another drawback is that such a wooden house would take a considerable area on the site, and therefore need to incur costs for the construction of a solid foundation. One-storey house, a log or logs are perfect for older people, who do not need extravagance and pretentiousness complex architecture. Them where you want the convenience and comfort. House with a loft suitable for the average family of 4-5 people. It is possible to arrange four or more rooms. All premises in the wooden house with a loft, are divided into the lighted day and night darkened area. Wooden house with a loft provides space for imagination of the architect. It can be built in a peculiar style, for example, "modern", have interesting architectural elements of the facade. In contrast to the house with one floor house with a loft is an order of magnitude smaller area of the site. Two-storey house being built is usually for large families. This capital structure for permanent residence, which has plumbing, heating system and all necessary utilities. In such a big house can provide a garage, sauna. A two-storey house will require large investments of funds but in this spacious family home will live freely and comfortably. Constructed wooden houses and a mixed view of storeys. This is – a good option for a country area with uneven terrain. Roof of the first floor can be accommodate a room for work and for leisure. How to be home – it's up to his master. Consultation with an experienced specialist helps you make the right decision.
Kind of trendsetter became a Swedish concern Ikea, built in 2000's first Russian shopping mall (in near Moscow) is using a light metal. Since then, many retailers ("Carousel", "Ramstore", "Metro") for the construction of new hypermarkets prefer it to lmk. And I must say, these shopping centers on the basis of pre-fabricated buildings continue to be built and open, even now, amid the crisis, while remaining an excellent opportunity for highly profitable investments. Where the wind blows? Having in hand the tools to reduce costs and develop new areas for development, developers are still yet not inclined to rely on their own strength, and on state aid. And they can be understood: the banks are extremely reluctant to reduce rates on loans, and demand for real estate shows no signs of recovery, so wait no longer support nowhere. Now the only way to survive for many construction companies – is to win state tender for the construction of various facilities under federal or regional programs.
As a result of the dramatic 2008 "plus" were only those developers who were subjected to government orders in the implementation of priority national projects. According to the Minister of Regional Development Viktor Basargin, a total of 2009 funding for programs within the national project "Affordable housing" is over $ 1 trillion. rubles. These money the state spends including the purchase of ready housing from developers. In addition, developers who erect housing economy class, also promised credits for sparing the 16-18% apr for the long term. Thus, developers receive funding to continue construction of housing.
One important question that arises during the construction of cottages, is a question of lining the outer walls. There are several ways cladding, which are used in the construction of houses: – Vertical Cabin vnahlyst – Cabin with battens over joints – vertical cladding of polished boards for cladding – vertical cladding planed boards for cladding – horizontal cladding overlapping planks. Consider the more common ways such plating, applicability in the construction of houses, like skin by using strips over joints and vertical cladding of polished boards cladding. The procedure works by plating the outer walls of houses with strips over joints. 1. Pribivnye board and rack mounted over the vent opening windshield panels.
2. Established carrier board. 3. at planning step, the lower boards should keep in mind that the board must dock with each other. Can only be a small gap in order to remain a certain margin for adjustment. 4. The lower end of planks to saw off corner boards and saw off a desired size.
5. Board installed in a vertical position over the carrier rack and mounted on both its ends to pribivnym boards. Uses hot galvanized nails 60 mm. Boards established the core outward. 6. rack mounted in the expansion joints. Nails are driven in the middle of the rails so that they pass into the space between the bottom board. Uses hot galvanized nails 60 mm. The second way of cladding used in the construction of cottages – vertical cladding of polished boards for cladding. The procedure works is as follows: 1. to the surface windproof panels mounted rack ventilation openings and pribivnye board in the horizontal direction. 2. to the bottom edge is attached carrier board. 3. the planning step, boards should pay attention to that when working with boards oshpuntovannymi step can be adjust to a small extent. Margin of a little more step in boards uys and uyv. 4. board are measured and saw off at the lower end boards must not forget to do the rounding. 5. board installed on top carrier board and are attached to the nails to pribivnym boards. If you are using narrower boards (95 mm), one nail in the middle will suffice. Step should be a minimum of 600 mm. If you are using wider boards (over 100 mm), they nailed on both sides. Before nailing should always make sure that the board is firmly in the groove and tongue. If a board cladding uys or uyv, then apply dimensional device, with through which is formed between the boards steady step. Verified as horizontal boards.
But most importantly, becoming parties to the financing, owners have the right to control the repair process at all stages. Right to use that not only can, but necessary. Arithmetic overhaul Consider a typical example – retrofitting system heating. As practice shows, it is often limited to the replacement of risers and patching holes in the basement. While the law provides for the installation of modern energy-efficient equipment. This means that you can (And should) require replacement of morally and technically outdated systems. As a result, residents will be able to significantly reduce the amount of payments for heating (of course, provided that the calculations for him will be conducted on the testimony of house heat meters). "Modernization of heating systems and installation of devices to control the heat consumption can reduce its consumption by an average of 30% during the heating season – says Konstantin , Director of Heat Automation Ltd.
Danfoss, a leading global manufacturer of energy efficient equipment for heating systems and heating buildings. – The same proportion is reduced and the size of payments for heating. Annual savings could be 3-4 thousand rubles. the apartment, and sometimes more. For many it is a considerable amount better spent on other needs: for example, on vacation or their children's education. " It should be noted that 30% – is not the limit. Thus, after upgrading the heating system a five-story house number 29 on Lenin Street in the city Belorezk monthly savings on payments to tenants for heating was approximately 35-45%.